Growth and endocrine disease People with CF often have malformations and enlarged the fingernails (clubbing or clubbing) The pancreas contains the islets of Langerhans, which are responsible for producing insulin, a hormone that helps regulate levels blood glucose. Damage to the pancreas may lead to loss of islet cells and lead to diabetes. Moreover, vitamin D supplemented by the diet is implicated in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus. The low availability of it, due to malabsorption, leads to osteoporosis, increasing the risk of fractures. Additionally, people with CF often present in the hands and feet, a deformity called Clubbed fingers , which is due to the effects of the chronic hypoxia and in your bones. The growth retardation is a hallmark of this disease.Children with CF are unable, usually gain weight and height at rates comparable to those of their peers, often only receive a proper diagnosis when investigating the causes of this phenomenon. The determinants of growth retardation are multifactorial and include chronic lung infection, malabsorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract, and increased metabolic demand associated with the chronic condition. Diagnosis EmO locus in red indicates the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis can be diagnosed by newborn screening, sweat electrolyte test, or genetic testing. As of 2006, in the United States, ten percent of cases are detected soon after birth as part of newborn screening programs that identify high levels of the enzyme trypsin. However, in most countries these tests are not performed routinely.For this reason, it is common for those affected receive proper diagnosis only after forcing an evaluation of symptoms for this disease. The most commonly used diagnostic test is the sweat test, described by Lewis E. Robert E. Gibson Cooke in 1959 using quantitative electrophoresis (iontophoresis) with a stimulant drug sweating (pilocarpine). This substance, which has positive charge, applied to a positive electrode ( ), in contact with skin. Cinergy Health Then, by passing an electric current, the drug migrates through the integument to another electrode of opposite charge (-) located at some distance, to cross the epidermis, resulting in stimulation of the sweat glands causing sweating under control. Sweat samples are then collected on filter paper or in a capillary tube and are analyzed, determining the concentrations of sodium and chloride. People with CF have higher levels of these ions in sweat.Once the sweat test has been positive, it makes a detailed and accurate diagnosis, by identifying mutations in the CFTR gene. There are various tests to identify possible complications and monitoring the progress of the disease. The images obtained by X-ray and CT facilitates the detection of signs of injury or infection in the lungs. A sputum culture was examined by microscope, provides information about which bacteria are responsible, and can choose the most effective antibiotics. Pulmonary function tests measure lung capacity, lung volumes and the speed with which they may be mobilized (air flow). Through such tests, it is possible to determine whether it is appropriate antibiotic treatment or to evaluate the response to it. Blood tests can identify liver problems, vitamin deficiencies, and reveal the emergence of diabetes.DEXA or DXA devices (English for “X-ray absorptiometry Dual energy), are used as evidence for the presence of osteoporosis. Finally, the quantification of fecal elastase, facilitates the detection of insufficient digestive enzymes.