Interpreters – translators are oral translation, called the simultaneous interpretation. There is another type of oral translation and interpretation – consecutive interpretation when the specialist recreates speech speaker in the target language at the moment of silence to speak out. Obtained as follows: first, the interpreter listens and analyzes, and then pronounces the translated and adapted the text. And with simultaneous translation translator recreates the speaker's utterance together with him. Apply this type of translation in the maintenance of forums, conferences and other major events where necessary to ensure mutual understanding hundreds present.
For the first time simultaneous translation used in 1945, at the beginning of the Nuremberg trials, why he is considered a relatively new kind of translation. Simultaneous translation is always determines the application special equipment in his kit includes Sound Insulation translation booth, as well as microphones for the interpreters and the speakers and headphones for all participants without exception. Among specialists and interpreters interpreters are considered the highest level of professionalism. Not all educated translators can perform simultaneous interpretation. According to statistics, only 25% of the interpreters are simultaneous interpreter. Researchers found that in moment of simultaneous interpretation brain interpreter simultaneously handles more than 6 dozen mental processes, the main of which – it is memory and speed of reaction. With simultaneous translation brain specialist can be likened to a computer processor, which simultaneously performs the task of handling hundreds of bits and pulses. It turns out that uses all parts of the brain that are responsible for level of attention, memory, speech and receive audio signals.
There is nothing strange that at a given load brain interpreter does not take long for exhaustion, and a consequence of an indistinct "distinguishing" signal. Interpreters helps most cursive (personal system of signs and symbols). Using such a system, the interpreter is able to recreate what has been said, even when the center of logic and sense keys is in the final or in the beginning of the sentence. Clinical psychologist and best global practices, interpreters are encouraged to work with simultaneous translation no more than 30 minutes, which requires a partner. It turns out that every half-hour Interpreters replace each other. With this mode the human brain can not handle the loss of the signals for 4 hours, then interpreters certainly need to relax, take a break of at least 40 minutes. But more often entire time frame depends on the individual abilities of an interpreter, his stamina and fitness level. Translator, no matter how well he did not know both languages, necessarily require preparatory work for repetition of a special vocabulary to quickly navigate in the translation. Also, simultaneous interpreter must have the ability to "guess" different phrases, sentences, etc. For example, carrying out translations from English language, interpreters are often faced with the words "protection of human, professional here with confidence admit that the next word" child rights ". Not less important is the level of relatedness of languages. If we compare Russian translation from Polish and German, it is noticeable that the more difficult to perform translation from German. It is caused by uneven structure of words and sentences, characteristics of pronunciation and phonetics, characteristic German accent. A Polish, in turn, is similar to Russian and Ukrainian, which makes it easier to understand and recreate. From the above-written we can conclude that interpretation can be attributed to the most complex linguistic activity.